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The Employment Situation - May 2011

Nonfarm payroll employment changed little (+54,000) in May, and the unemployment
rate was essentially unchanged at 9.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Job gains continued in professional and business services, health
care, and mining. Employment levels in other major private-sector industries were
little changed, and local government employment continued to decline.

Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons (13.9 million) and the unemployment rate (9.1
percent) were essentially unchanged in May. The labor force, at 153.7 million, was
little changed over the month. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men (8.9 percent),
adult women (8.0 percent), teenagers (24.2 percent), whites (8.0 percent), blacks
(16.2 percent), and Hispanics (11.9 percent) showed little or no change in May. The
jobless rate for Asians was 7.0 percent, not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1,
A-2, and A-3.)

In May, the number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and over)
increased by 361,000 to 6.2 million; their share of unemployment increased to 45.1
percent. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate was 64.2 percent for the fifth
consecutive month. The employment-population ratio remained at 58.4 percent in
May. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred
to as involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged in May at 8.5
million. These individuals were working part time because their hours had been cut
back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In May, 2.2 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, about the
same as a year earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.) These individuals
were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for
a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 822,000 discouraged workers in May, a 
decrease of 261,000 from a year earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they believe
no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.4 million persons marginally attached
to the labor force in May had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See
table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment was little changed in May (+54,000), following gains
that averaged 220,000 in the prior 3 months. Private-sector employment continued to
trend up (+83,000), although by a much smaller amount than the average for the prior
3 months (+244,000). In May, job gains occurred in professional and business services,
health care, and mining. Local government employment continued to trend down. Employment
in other major industries changed little over the month. (See table B-1.)

Employment in professional and business services continued to increase in May (+44,000).
Notable job gains occurred in accounting and bookkeeping services (+18,000) and in
computer systems design and related services (+8,000). Employment in temporary help
services was little changed.

Health care employment continued to expand in May (+17,000). Employment in the industry
had risen by an average of 24,000 per month over the prior 12 months.

Mining added 7,000 jobs in May. Employment in mining has risen by 115,000 since a recent
low point in October 2009.

Employment in manufacturing changed little in May (-5,000). Job gains in fabricated metal
products and in machinery were offset by losses in transportation equipment, paper and
paper products, and printing and related support activities. The manufacturing industry
added 243,000 jobs from a recent low point in December 2009 through April 2011.

Construction employment was essentially unchanged in May. Employment in the industry
has shown little movement on net since early 2010, after having fallen sharply during
the 2007-09 period.

Employment in local government continued to decline over the month (-28,000). Local
government has lost 446,000 jobs since an employment peak in September 2008.

Employment in other major industries, including retail trade, transportation and
warehousing, information, financial activities, and leisure and hospitality, changed
little in May.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained at 34.4 hours
in May. The manufacturing workweek for all employees increased by 0.2 hour to 40.6 hours
over the month, while factory overtime was unchanged at 3.2 hours. The average workweek
for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 33.6 hours
in May. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In May, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased
by 6 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $22.98. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings
increased by 1.8 percent. In May, average hourly earnings of private-sector production
and nonsupervisory employees rose by 6 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $19.43. (See tables B-3
and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for March was revised from +221,000 to
+194,000, and the change for April was revised from +244,000 to +232,000.

___________
The Employment Situation for June is scheduled to be released on Friday, July 8, 2011,
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Category May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011 Change from:
Apr.
2011-
May
2011

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

237,499 239,000 239,146 239,313 167

Civilian labor force

154,237 153,406 153,421 153,693 272

Participation rate

64.9 64.2 64.2 64.2 0.0

Employed

139,353 139,864 139,674 139,779 105

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.5 58.4 58.4 0.0

Unemployed

14,884 13,542 13,747 13,914 167

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.8 9.0 9.1 0.1

Not in labor force

83,262 85,594 85,725 85,620 -105

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

9.6 8.8 9.0 9.1 0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

9.8 8.6 8.8 8.9 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

8.1 7.7 7.9 8.0 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

26.4 24.5 24.9 24.2 -0.7

White

8.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 0.0

Black or African American

15.5 15.5 16.1 16.2 0.1

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

7.5 7.1 6.4 7.0 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

12.4 11.3 11.8 11.9 0.1

Total, 25 years and over

8.3 7.4 7.6 7.8 0.2

Less than a high school diploma

14.9 13.7 14.6 14.7 0.1

High school graduates, no college

10.8 9.5 9.7 9.5 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

8.3 7.4 7.5 8.0 0.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,194 8,209 8,144 8,274 130

Job leavers

966 896 942 908 -34

Reentrants

3,430 3,262 3,375 3,433 58

New entrants

1,192 1,360 1,346 1,231 -115

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,763 2,449 2,691 2,664 -27

5 to 14 weeks

3,060 2,914 2,907 2,892 -15

15 to 26 weeks

2,174 1,957 2,006 1,984 -22

27 weeks and over

6,710 6,122 5,839 6,200 361

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

8,776 8,433 8,600 8,548 -52

Slack work or business conditions

6,141 5,595 5,689 5,834 145

Could only find part-time work

2,299 2,332 2,480 2,473 -7

Part time for noneconomic reasons

17,977 18,417 18,282 18,468 186

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,223 2,434 2,466 2,206 -

Discouraged workers

1,083 921 989 822 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

458 194 232 54

Total private

48 219 251 83

Goods-producing

1 40 38 3

Mining and logging

11 15 9 6

Construction

-37 5 5 2

Manufacturing

27 20 24 -5

Durable goods(1)

26 21 18 8

Motor vehicles and parts

6.6 1.7 2.9 -3.4

Nondurable goods

1 -1 6 -13

Private service-providing(1)

47 179 213 80

Wholesale trade

-1.3 14.4 5.3 3.3

Retail trade

-3.3 -5.6 64.0 -8.5

Transportation and warehousing

9.0 8.0 7.0 8.0

Information

-1 -1 -1 -1

Financial activities

-8 5 -2 3

Professional and business services(1)

25 75 50 44

Temporary help services

30.2 30.0 -1.6 -1.2

Education and health services(1)

26 33 54 34

Health care and social assistance

23.4 36.0 41.0 27.2

Leisure and hospitality

-3 46 32 -6

Other services

5 5 2 3

Government

410 -25 -19 -29

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.6 49.6 49.5

Total private women employees

48.4 48.1 48.1 48.0

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.2 34.3 34.4 34.4

Average hourly earnings

$22.57 $22.89 $22.92 $22.98

Average weekly earnings

$771.89 $785.13 $788.45 $790.51

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

91.9 93.3 93.8 93.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.2 0.5 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

98.9 101.9 102.5 102.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.4 33.6 33.6 33.6

Average hourly earnings

$19.03 $19.32 $19.37 $19.43

Average weekly earnings

$635.60 $649.15 $650.83 $652.85

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

98.6 100.5 100.7 100.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.0 0.3 0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

125.4 129.7 130.3 130.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.2 0.5 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private

56.0 65.7 65.0 53.6

Manufacturing

62.3 63.0 64.8 54.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant
change in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has
a more expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-
employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also provides
estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment estimate; firms
from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled to achieve that goal.

Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the
survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an
unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling
frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a
year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work
are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped
looking for work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.

How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact
on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for
paid time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other
time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always,
results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be
off work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while
some workers, such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of
all employees in the payroll survey have a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay
period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.


In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week’s work for weather-
related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time off.
The household survey collects data on the number of persons who usually work full
time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work due to bad weather.
Current and historical data are available on the household survey’s most requested
statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (household survey) and the Current Employment
Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey provides
information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears
in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about
60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business
establishments. The sample includes about 140,000 businesses and government
agencies representing approximately 440,000 worksites and is drawn from a
sampling frame of roughly 9 million unemployment insurance tax accounts.
The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm payroll
employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week
or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally
the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which 
may or may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid
employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employed
if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following
criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they were
available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference
week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need not be 
looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment data
derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility
for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of
the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is
the employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about
the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as 
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay 
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector
for all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. 
Production and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and 
related employees in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction
workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-
providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the 
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and 
recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revisions
to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,000. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confidence
interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to +150,000 
(50,000 +/- 100,000). These figures do not mean that the sample results
are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within this interval.
Since this range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with
confidence that nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month.
If, however, the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all
of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval would be greater
than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate
of around 5.5 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is about 
+/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is
about +/-0.19 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The precision
of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over time, such
as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information
for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information on a timely basis, mistakes
made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or processing of
the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these
estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only after two
successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey
is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by
new firms. To correct for this systematic underestimation of employment
growth, an estimation procedure with two components is used to account
for business births. The first component excludes employment losses from
business deaths from sample-based estimation in order to offset the 
missing employment gains from business births. This is incorporated into
the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting sample
units going out of business, but imputing to them the same employment
trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most
of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate
the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the 
imputation. The historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance universe micro-level
database, and reflects the actual residual net of births and deaths over
the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted
once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment
obtained from administrative records of the unemployment insurance program.
The difference between the March sample-based employment estimates and
the March universe counts is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as
a rough proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also incorporate
changes in the classification of industries. Over the past decade, absolute
benchmark revisions  for total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent,
with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age [Numbers in thousands] Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1) May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

237,499 239,146 239,313 237,499 238,704 238,851 239,000 239,146 239,313

Civilian labor force

153,866 152,898 153,449 154,237 153,186 153,246 153,406 153,421 153,693

Participation rate

64.8 63.9 64.1 64.9 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.2

Employed

139,497 139,661 140,028 139,353 139,323 139,573 139,864 139,674 139,779

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.4 58.5 58.7 58.4 58.4 58.5 58.4 58.4

Unemployed

14,369 13,237 13,421 14,884 13,863 13,673 13,542 13,747 13,914

Unemployment rate

9.3 8.7 8.7 9.6 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0 9.1

Not in labor force

83,633 86,248 85,864 83,262 85,518 85,605 85,594 85,725 85,620

Persons who currently want a job

6,381 6,482 6,821 5,733 6,410 6,410 6,509 6,539 6,227

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,001 116,067 116,156 115,001 115,828 115,907 115,988 116,067 116,156

Civilian labor force

82,028 81,354 81,956 82,176 81,544 81,720 81,674 81,684 81,989

Participation rate

71.3 70.1 70.6 71.5 70.4 70.5 70.4 70.4 70.6

Employed

73,776 73,761 74,441 73,603 73,800 74,122 74,108 73,973 74,177

Employment-population ratio

64.2 63.6 64.1 64.0 63.7 63.9 63.9 63.7 63.9

Unemployed

8,252 7,593 7,515 8,572 7,744 7,598 7,566 7,712 7,811

Unemployment rate

10.1 9.3 9.2 10.4 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5

Not in labor force

32,973 34,713 34,200 32,825 34,284 34,187 34,313 34,382 34,168

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

106,407 107,469 107,566 106,407 107,203 107,292 107,381 107,469 107,566

Civilian labor force

79,088 78,702 79,223 79,178 78,506 78,795 78,764 78,856 79,193

Participation rate

74.3 73.2 73.7 74.4 73.2 73.4 73.4 73.4 73.6

Employed

71,655 71,822 72,427 71,451 71,589 71,954 71,959 71,939 72,137

Employment-population ratio

67.3 66.8 67.3 67.1 66.8 67.1 67.0 66.9 67.1

Unemployed

7,433 6,880 6,796 7,728 6,917 6,841 6,805 6,917 7,056

Unemployment rate

9.4 8.7 8.6 9.8 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.8 8.9

Not in labor force

27,319 28,767 28,344 27,229 28,698 28,497 28,617 28,612 28,373

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,499 123,079 123,157 122,499 122,876 122,944 123,012 123,079 123,157

Civilian labor force

71,838 71,544 71,492 72,062 71,642 71,526 71,732 71,737 71,704

Participation rate

58.6 58.1 58.0 58.8 58.3 58.2 58.3 58.3 58.2

Employed

65,721 65,900 65,587 65,750 65,523 65,451 65,756 65,702 65,602

Employment-population ratio

53.7 53.5 53.3 53.7 53.3 53.2 53.5 53.4 53.3

Unemployed

6,117 5,644 5,905 6,312 6,119 6,075 5,976 6,035 6,102

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.9 8.3 8.8 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.4 8.5

Not in labor force

50,661 51,535 51,664 50,437 51,234 51,418 51,280 51,342 51,453

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,160 114,868 114,954 114,160 114,637 114,714 114,792 114,868 114,954

Civilian labor force

68,859 68,863 68,728 69,057 68,839 68,802 68,898 68,896 68,908

Participation rate

60.3 59.9 59.8 60.5 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 59.9

Employed

63,506 63,733 63,423 63,487 63,392 63,319 63,566 63,479 63,402

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.5 55.2 55.6 55.3 55.2 55.4 55.3 55.2

Unemployed

5,352 5,130 5,305 5,570 5,447 5,483 5,332 5,417 5,505

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.4 7.7 8.1 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.9 8.0

Not in labor force

45,302 46,005 46,226 45,103 45,798 45,912 45,894 45,972 46,047

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,932 16,809 16,792 16,932 16,863 16,845 16,827 16,809 16,792

Civilian labor force

5,920 5,333 5,498 6,002 5,841 5,649 5,744 5,669 5,592

Participation rate

35.0 31.7 32.7 35.4 34.6 33.5 34.1 33.7 33.3

Employed

4,336 4,106 4,177 4,416 4,341 4,300 4,339 4,255 4,240

Employment-population ratio

25.6 24.4 24.9 26.1 25.7 25.5 25.8 25.3 25.2

Unemployed

1,584 1,227 1,320 1,586 1,500 1,350 1,405 1,413 1,352

Unemployment rate

26.8 23.0 24.0 26.4 25.7 23.9 24.5 24.9 24.2

Not in labor force

11,012 11,476 11,295 10,931 11,022 11,196 11,083 11,140 11,201

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age [Numbers in thousands] Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1) May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

191,856 192,771 192,877 191,856 192,516 192,601 192,688 192,771 192,877

Civilian labor force

125,017 124,140 124,608 125,327 124,192 124,237 124,497 124,650 124,811

Participation rate

65.2 64.4 64.6 65.3 64.5 64.5 64.6 64.7 64.7

Employed

114,438 114,597 114,989 114,350 114,197 114,330 114,706 114,652 114,785

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.4 59.6 59.6 59.3 59.4 59.5 59.5 59.5

Unemployed

10,579 9,542 9,618 10,977 9,995 9,907 9,791 9,998 10,026

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.7 7.7 8.8 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 8.0

Not in labor force

66,840 68,632 68,269 66,529 68,325 68,364 68,191 68,122 68,066

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,352 64,904 65,416 65,381 64,673 64,919 64,864 65,032 65,335

Participation rate

74.8 73.7 74.3 74.8 73.6 73.9 73.7 73.9 74.2

Employed

59,848 59,869 60,472 59,638 59,586 59,860 59,850 59,903 60,168

Employment-population ratio

68.5 68.0 68.7 68.3 67.8 68.1 68.0 68.1 68.3

Unemployed

5,504 5,035 4,943 5,743 5,086 5,059 5,014 5,129 5,167

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.8 7.6 8.8 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.9 7.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,786 54,882 54,709 55,026 54,686 54,677 54,950 54,971 54,912

Participation rate

59.8 59.7 59.5 60.1 59.6 59.5 59.8 59.8 59.7

Employed

50,934 51,275 50,956 50,984 50,878 50,816 51,184 51,138 50,999

Employment-population ratio

55.6 55.8 55.4 55.7 55.4 55.3 55.7 55.6 55.5

Unemployed

3,852 3,606 3,753 4,041 3,808 3,860 3,766 3,833 3,914

Unemployment rate

7.0 6.6 6.9 7.3 7.0 7.1 6.9 7.0 7.1

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,879 4,354 4,483 4,920 4,833 4,641 4,683 4,646 4,563

Participation rate

37.8 33.9 34.9 38.1 37.5 36.1 36.4 36.2 35.6

Employed

3,656 3,453 3,561 3,728 3,732 3,654 3,672 3,610 3,619

Employment-population ratio

28.3 26.9 27.8 28.9 29.0 28.4 28.6 28.1 28.2

Unemployed

1,223 901 922 1,193 1,100 987 1,011 1,036 945

Unemployment rate

25.1 20.7 20.6 24.2 22.8 21.3 21.6 22.3 20.7

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,653 29,035 29,063 28,653 28,947 28,976 29,005 29,035 29,063

Civilian labor force

17,926 17,765 17,705 17,961 17,857 17,865 17,836 17,849 17,750

Participation rate

62.6 61.2 60.9 62.7 61.7 61.7 61.5 61.5 61.1

Employed

15,188 14,966 14,867 15,175 15,048 15,124 15,067 14,966 14,870

Employment-population ratio

53.0 51.5 51.2 53.0 52.0 52.2 51.9 51.5 51.2

Unemployed

2,738 2,799 2,838 2,785 2,809 2,741 2,769 2,882 2,880

Unemployment rate

15.3 15.8 16.0 15.5 15.7 15.3 15.5 16.1 16.2

Not in labor force

10,727 11,270 11,358 10,692 11,090 11,112 11,169 11,186 11,313

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,137 8,091 8,024 8,164 8,054 8,053 8,119 8,113 8,056

Participation rate

70.2 68.4 67.7 70.4 68.3 68.2 68.7 68.6 68.0

Employed

6,758 6,688 6,618 6,772 6,723 6,745 6,758 6,731 6,645

Employment-population ratio

58.3 56.5 55.8 58.4 57.1 57.2 57.2 56.9 56.1

Unemployed

1,380 1,403 1,406 1,392 1,331 1,309 1,361 1,382 1,411

Unemployment rate

17.0 17.3 17.5 17.1 16.5 16.2 16.8 17.0 17.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,097 9,032 9,041 9,102 9,146 9,185 9,050 9,054 9,056

Participation rate

63.2 61.9 61.9 63.2 62.9 63.1 62.1 62.0 62.0

Employed

8,004 7,877 7,868 7,976 7,966 7,993 7,923 7,836 7,847

Employment-population ratio

55.6 54.0 53.9 55.4 54.8 54.9 54.4 53.7 53.7

Unemployed

1,093 1,155 1,172 1,125 1,179 1,192 1,127 1,217 1,210

Unemployment rate

12.0 12.8 13.0 12.4 12.9 13.0 12.5 13.4 13.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

692 642 640 696 658 627 668 682 638

Participation rate

26.0 24.6 24.6 26.1 25.1 23.9 25.6 26.2 24.5

Employed

426 402 380 428 359 386 387 398 378

Employment-population ratio

16.0 15.4 14.6 16.0 13.7 14.7 14.8 15.3 14.5

Unemployed

266 241 260 268 299 241 281 284 260

Unemployment rate

38.4 37.5 40.6 38.5 45.4 38.4 42.1 41.6 40.7

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,166 11,378 11,350 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,236 7,295 7,377 - - - - - -

Participation rate

64.8 64.1 65.0 - - - - - -

Employed

6,692 6,832 6,863 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

59.9 60.0 60.5 - - - - - -

Unemployed

544 463 514 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.4 7.0 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,930 4,083 3,973 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age [Numbers in thousands] Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1) May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,578 34,233 34,311 33,578 34,001 34,079 34,155 34,233 34,311

Civilian labor force

22,633 22,672 22,642 22,739 22,823 22,519 22,676 22,798 22,739

Participation rate

67.4 66.2 66.0 67.7 67.1 66.1 66.4 66.6 66.3

Employed

20,033 20,124 20,124 19,913 20,099 19,912 20,105 20,110 20,025

Employment-population ratio

59.7 58.8 58.7 59.3 59.1 58.4 58.9 58.7 58.4

Unemployed

2,600 2,548 2,518 2,826 2,724 2,606 2,571 2,688 2,715

Unemployment rate

11.5 11.2 11.1 12.4 11.9 11.6 11.3 11.8 11.9

Not in labor force

10,945 11,561 11,668 10,839 11,178 11,561 11,479 11,435 11,571

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,887 12,899 12,940 - - - - - -

Participation rate

82.5 81.4 81.5 - - - - - -

Employed

11,469 11,568 11,636 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

73.4 73.0 73.3 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,417 1,331 1,304 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.0 10.3 10.1 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,752 8,896 8,799 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.5 59.3 58.5 - - - - - -

Employed

7,853 7,884 7,820 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

53.4 52.6 52.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

898 1,012 979 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.3 11.4 11.1 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

995 878 904 - - - - - -

Participation rate

30.7 25.9 26.6 - - - - - -

Employed

710 672 668 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

21.9 19.8 19.7 - - - - - -

Unemployed

285 206 236 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

28.6 23.4 26.1 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment [Numbers in thousands] Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

12,338 11,703 11,669 12,104 11,383 11,317 11,652 11,567 11,442

Participation rate

46.6 46.1 46.0 45.7 45.1 45.5 46.1 45.5 45.1

Employed

10,655 10,000 10,072 10,305 9,770 9,749 10,059 9,876 9,757

Employment-population ratio

40.2 39.4 39.7 38.9 38.7 39.2 39.8 38.9 38.5

Unemployed

1,683 1,703 1,597 1,799 1,613 1,568 1,593 1,691 1,685

Unemployment rate

13.6 14.5 13.7 14.9 14.2 13.9 13.7 14.6 14.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

38,354 37,485 37,670 38,404 37,513 37,525 37,171 37,506 37,653

Participation rate

61.8 60.4 60.4 61.9 60.3 60.3 60.0 60.4 60.4

Employed

34,409 33,886 34,247 34,267 33,972 33,965 33,654 33,881 34,072

Employment-population ratio

55.5 54.6 54.9 55.2 54.6 54.6 54.4 54.6 54.6

Unemployed

3,945 3,599 3,423 4,138 3,541 3,560 3,517 3,626 3,581

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.6 9.1 10.8 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.7 9.5

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,707 36,463 36,659 36,844 36,841 36,784 36,653 36,637 36,780

Participation rate

70.8 69.3 69.4 71.0 70.2 69.5 69.7 69.7 69.7

Employed

33,833 33,829 33,898 33,788 33,878 33,919 33,938 33,907 33,852

Employment-population ratio

65.2 64.3 64.2 65.1 64.6 64.1 64.6 64.5 64.1

Unemployed

2,874 2,634 2,761 3,057 2,963 2,865 2,715 2,730 2,928

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.2 7.5 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.4 7.5 8.0

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

45,573 46,913 46,778 45,709 46,263 46,591 46,919 46,897 46,925

Participation rate

77.0 77.0 77.2 77.2 76.4 76.9 76.9 77.0 77.5

Employed

43,561 44,976 44,766 43,599 44,322 44,588 44,843 44,789 44,807

Employment-population ratio

73.6 73.8 73.9 73.7 73.2 73.6 73.5 73.5 74.0

Unemployed

2,012 1,937 2,012 2,110 1,941 2,003 2,076 2,109 2,118

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.1 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,060 21,664 20,275 19,864 1,785 1,800

Civilian labor force

11,862 11,421 10,754 10,316 1,108 1,105

Participation rate

53.8 52.7 53.0 51.9 62.1 61.4

Employed

10,938 10,477 9,914 9,457 1,023 1,020

Employment-population ratio

49.6 48.4 48.9 47.6 57.3 56.7

Unemployed

924 944 839 859 85 85

Unemployment rate

7.8 8.3 7.8 8.3 7.7 7.7

Not in labor force

10,198 10,243 9,521 9,548 677 695

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,130 2,394 1,755 1,984 374 409

Civilian labor force

1,734 1,923 1,471 1,647 263 276

Participation rate

81.4 80.3 83.8 83.0 70.2 67.3

Employed

1,550 1,691 1,327 1,435 223 256

Employment-population ratio

72.8 70.6 75.6 72.3 59.6 62.4

Unemployed

185 232 145 212 40 20

Unemployment rate

10.6 12.1 9.8 12.9 15.2 7.3

Not in labor force

395 471 284 337 111 134

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,949 2,850 2,507 2,420 442 430

Civilian labor force

2,575 2,374 2,226 2,073 349 301

Participation rate

87.3 83.3 88.8 85.7 79.0 70.1

Employed

2,400 2,207 2,068 1,929 331 278

Employment-population ratio

81.4 77.5 82.5 79.7 74.9 64.8

Unemployed

175 167 157 144 18 23

Unemployment rate

6.8 7.0 7.1 6.9 5.1 7.5

Not in labor force

374 476 281 347 93 129

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,058 10,470 10,684 10,139 374 331

Civilian labor force

4,013 3,605 3,905 3,480 108 124

Participation rate

36.3 34.4 36.5 34.3 28.9 37.6

Employed

3,732 3,337 3,625 3,223 106 114

Employment-population ratio

33.7 31.9 33.9 31.8 28.4 34.5

Unemployed

281 267 280 257 2 10

Unemployment rate

7.0 7.4 7.2 7.4 1.6 8.1

Not in labor force

7,045 6,866 6,779 6,659 266 207

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,923 5,950 5,329 5,320 595 630

Civilian labor force

3,540 3,519 3,152 3,115 388 404

Participation rate

59.8 59.1 59.1 58.6 65.3 64.1

Employed

3,257 3,242 2,894 2,870 363 372

Employment-population ratio

55.0 54.5 54.3 53.9 61.0 59.0

Unemployed

283 278 258 245 25 32

Unemployment rate

8.0 7.9 8.2 7.9 6.5 8.0

Not in labor force

2,384 2,431 2,177 2,205 207 226

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

206,485 209,119 90,168 91,916 116,317 117,203

Civilian labor force

140,032 140,321 70,298 70,803 69,734 69,517

Participation rate

67.8 67.1 78.0 77.0 60.0 59.3

Employed

127,183 128,348 63,198 64,405 63,985 63,943

Employment-population ratio

61.6 61.4 70.1 70.1 55.0 54.6

Unemployed

12,849 11,973 7,100 6,398 5,749 5,574

Unemployment rate

9.2 8.5 10.1 9.0 8.2 8.0

Not in labor force

66,453 68,799 19,870 21,113 46,583 47,686

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,547 27,669 210,952 211,644

Civilian labor force

5,930 5,828 147,936 147,621

Participation rate

22.3 21.1 70.1 69.7

Employed

5,060 4,917 134,437 135,111

Employment-population ratio

19.1 17.8 63.7 63.8

Unemployed

870 911 13,499 12,510

Unemployment rate

14.7 15.6 9.1 8.5

Not in labor force

20,617 21,841 63,016 64,024

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,729 2,682 75,601 75,258

Participation rate

37.5 35.3 83.1 82.5

Employed

2,282 2,218 68,019 68,474

Employment-population ratio

31.3 29.2 74.7 75.1

Unemployed

448 464 7,582 6,784

Unemployment rate

16.4 17.3 10.0 9.0

Not in labor force

4,555 4,911 15,399 15,948

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,381 2,280 66,472 66,109

Participation rate

30.9 29.2 71.5 70.9

Employed

2,052 1,919 60,856 60,748

Employment-population ratio

26.6 24.6 65.5 65.2

Unemployed

330 360 5,616 5,361

Unemployment rate

13.8 15.8 8.4 8.1

Not in labor force

5,321 5,531 26,452 27,107

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

820 867 5,862 6,254

Participation rate

7.1 7.1 21.7 23.0

Employed

727 780 5,561 5,889

Employment-population ratio

6.3 6.4 20.6 21.6

Unemployed

93 87 301 365

Unemployment rate

11.3 10.0 5.1 5.8

Not in labor force

10,741 11,399 21,166 20,969

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Employment status and nativity Total Men Women May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,647 36,348 17,901 18,200 17,746 18,149

Civilian labor force

24,210 24,253 14,339 14,511 9,871 9,741

Participation rate

67.9 66.7 80.1 79.7 55.6 53.7

Employed

22,125 22,216 13,088 13,333 9,037 8,883

Employment-population ratio

62.1 61.1 73.1 73.3 50.9 48.9

Unemployed

2,085 2,037 1,251 1,178 835 859

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.4 8.7 8.1 8.5 8.8

Not in labor force

11,437 12,095 3,562 3,688 7,875 8,407

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,852 202,965 97,100 97,957 104,753 105,008

Civilian labor force

129,656 129,196 67,689 67,445 61,967 61,751

Participation rate

64.2 63.7 69.7 68.9 59.2 58.8

Employed

117,372 117,812 60,688 61,108 56,684 56,704

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.0 62.5 62.4 54.1 54.0

Unemployed

12,284 11,384 7,001 6,337 5,282 5,047

Unemployment rate

9.5 8.8 10.3 9.4 8.5 8.2

Not in labor force

72,196 73,769 29,410 30,512 42,786 43,257

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status [In thousands] Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,272 2,061 2,315 2,214 2,256 2,255 2,251 2,087 2,243

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,384 1,198 1,435 1,352 1,390 1,340 1,423 1,245 1,391

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

848 830 850 823 861 889 835 818 822

Unpaid family workers

39 33 31 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

137,225 137,601 137,713 137,152 137,088 137,443 137,738 137,595 137,551

Wage and salary workers(1)

128,053 128,814 128,822 128,123 128,151 128,664 128,800 128,840 128,803

Government

21,642 21,112 20,690 21,221 20,740 20,933 20,858 20,726 20,309

Private industries

106,412 107,702 108,132 106,902 107,409 107,681 107,946 108,186 108,505

Private households

698 671 799 - - - - - -

Other industries

105,714 107,031 107,333 106,197 106,774 106,965 107,251 107,510 107,727

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,087 8,693 8,812 8,928 8,864 8,688 8,773 8,650 8,655

Unpaid family workers

85 94 79 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,513 8,425 8,270 8,776 8,407 8,340 8,433 8,600 8,548

Slack work or business conditions

5,957 5,547 5,646 6,141 5,771 5,630 5,595 5,689 5,834

Could only find part-time work

2,250 2,605 2,396 2,299 2,510 2,415 2,332 2,480 2,473

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,088 19,163 18,656 17,977 17,929 18,220 18,417 18,282 18,468

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,392 8,305 8,144 8,630 8,242 8,248 8,265 8,475 8,400

Slack work or business conditions

5,864 5,448 5,547 6,038 5,661 5,558 5,504 5,581 5,731

Could only find part-time work

2,243 2,595 2,382 2,282 2,513 2,383 2,305 2,457 2,444

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

17,783 18,803 18,313 17,691 17,552 17,835 17,984 17,967 18,126

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators [Numbers in thousands] Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

139,497 139,661 140,028 139,353 139,323 139,573 139,864 139,674 139,779

16 to 19 years

4,336 4,106 4,177 4,416 4,341 4,300 4,339 4,255 4,240

16 to 17 years

1,376 1,145 1,203 1,427 1,406 1,311 1,326 1,247 1,249

18 to 19 years

2,960 2,961 2,974 2,978 2,939 3,000 2,990 2,989 2,982

20 years and over

135,161 135,555 135,850 134,938 134,982 135,274 135,525 135,419 135,539

20 to 24 years

12,704 12,864 12,868 12,824 12,941 12,954 13,021 12,978 12,970

25 years and over

122,458 122,691 122,983 122,177 122,026 122,245 122,479 122,423 122,641

25 to 54 years

94,353 93,762 94,088 94,212 93,758 93,764 93,949 93,690 93,919

25 to 34 years

30,180 30,318 30,617 30,207 30,438 30,412 30,538 30,354 30,627

35 to 44 years

30,933 30,483 30,402 30,823 30,373 30,409 30,605 30,441 30,302

45 to 54 years

33,240 32,961 33,069 33,183 32,946 32,943 32,806 32,895 32,989

55 years and over

28,104 28,929 28,895 27,965 28,268 28,481 28,530 28,733 28,722

Men, 16 years and over

73,776 73,761 74,441 73,603 73,800 74,122 74,108 73,973 74,177

16 to 19 years

2,121 1,939 2,013 2,153 2,211 2,168 2,149 2,033 2,040

16 to 17 years

664 531 579 676 717 668 688 582 594

18 to 19 years

1,458 1,408 1,435 1,473 1,471 1,495 1,454 1,441 1,446

20 years and over

71,655 71,822 72,427 71,451 71,589 71,954 71,959 71,939 72,137

20 to 24 years

6,555 6,651 6,764 6,566 6,784 6,715 6,731 6,712 6,756

25 years and over

65,100 65,171 65,663 64,934 64,789 65,179 65,207 65,193 65,448

25 to 54 years

50,431 49,988 50,480 50,332 50,005 50,247 50,241 50,107 50,358

25 to 34 years

16,270 16,447 16,698 16,316 16,542 16,627 16,677 16,557 16,747

35 to 44 years

16,727 16,401 16,475 16,677 16,394 16,477 16,481 16,428 16,421

45 to 54 years

17,434 17,140 17,308 17,339 17,070 17,143 17,083 17,123 17,189

55 years and over

14,668 15,183 15,183 14,602 14,784 14,932 14,966 15,087 15,090

Women, 16 years and over

65,721 65,900 65,587 65,750 65,523 65,451 65,756 65,702 65,602

16 to 19 years

2,214 2,167 2,164 2,263 2,130 2,132 2,190 2,222 2,200

16 to 17 years

712 614 625 750 689 644 638 665 654

18 to 19 years

1,502 1,554 1,540 1,505 1,468 1,506 1,537 1,548 1,537

20 years and over

63,506 63,733 63,423 63,487 63,392 63,319 63,566 63,479 63,402

20 to 24 years

6,148 6,213 6,104 6,258 6,157 6,239 6,290 6,266 6,214

25 years and over

57,358 57,520 57,320 57,243 57,237 57,065 57,272 57,230 57,193

25 to 54 years

43,922 43,774 43,608 43,880 43,752 43,517 43,708 43,584 43,561

25 to 34 years

13,909 13,871 13,920 13,891 13,897 13,785 13,862 13,798 13,880

35 to 44 years

14,206 14,082 13,927 14,146 13,979 13,931 14,124 14,014 13,881

45 to 54 years

15,807 15,821 15,761 15,844 15,877 15,800 15,723 15,772 15,800

55 years and over

13,436 13,746 13,712 13,362 13,485 13,549 13,564 13,646 13,631

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,454 42,992 43,124 43,343 42,915 42,957 42,880 42,987 42,998

Married women, spouse present

34,409 34,211 33,894 34,231 34,571 34,496 34,236 34,062 33,826

Women who maintain families

9,030 8,968 8,930 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

112,809 111,844 112,618 112,642 112,356 112,660 112,775 112,484 112,342

Part-time workers(2)

26,688 27,817 27,410 26,759 26,901 26,878 27,087 27,088 27,418

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,261 6,887 7,084 7,226 6,840 6,764 6,746 6,775 6,939

Percent of total employed

5.2 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,135 5,030 5,232 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,935 9,523 9,661 9,750 9,724 9,577 9,608 9,468 9,477

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands) Unemployment rates May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

14,884 13,747 13,914 9.6 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0 9.1

16 to 19 years

1,586 1,413 1,352 26.4 25.7 23.9 24.5 24.9 24.2

16 to 17 years

606 570 520 29.8 27.8 28.8 29.0 31.4 29.4

18 to 19 years

986 855 838 24.9 24.6 21.5 22.5 22.2 21.9

20 years and over

13,298 12,334 12,562 9.0 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.3 8.5

20 to 24 years

2,190 2,279 2,236 14.6 15.2 15.4 15.0 14.9 14.7

25 years and over

11,127 10,109 10,327 8.3 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.6 7.8

25 to 54 years

8,971 8,117 8,239 8.7 7.9 7.9 7.8 8.0 8.1

25 to 34 years

3,518 3,197 3,140 10.4 9.3 9.4 9.1 9.5 9.3

35 to 44 years

2,701 2,407 2,514 8.1 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.3 7.7

45 to 54 years

2,753 2,513 2,585 7.7 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.3

55 years and over

2,138 1,994 2,082 7.1 6.7 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.8

Men, 16 years and over

8,572 7,712 7,811 10.4 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5

16 to 19 years

845 795 755 28.2 27.2 25.9 26.2 28.1 27.0

16 to 17 years

324 283 271 32.4 29.1 28.5 28.5 32.7 31.3

18 to 19 years

529 517 488 26.4 26.6 24.8 25.3 26.4 25.2

20 years and over

7,728 6,917 7,056 9.8 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.8 8.9

20 to 24 years

1,258 1,284 1,259 16.1 15.9 16.4 16.4 16.1 15.7

25 years and over

6,450 5,625 5,765 9.0 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1

25 to 54 years

5,244 4,505 4,632 9.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.2 8.4

25 to 34 years

2,078 1,812 1,808 11.3 9.8 9.5 9.3 9.9 9.7

35 to 44 years

1,568 1,273 1,338 8.6 7.6 7.5 7.2 7.2 7.5

45 to 54 years

1,598 1,420 1,486 8.4 7.5 7.3 7.6 7.7 8.0

55 years and over

1,207 1,121 1,133 7.6 7.1 7.1 6.8 6.9 7.0

Women, 16 years and over

6,312 6,035 6,102 8.8 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.4 8.5

16 to 19 years

741 619 597 24.7 24.0 21.8 22.7 21.8 21.3

16 to 17 years

282 287 248 27.3 26.4 29.1 29.5 30.1 27.5

18 to 19 years

456 338 350 23.3 22.5 17.8 19.7 17.9 18.6

20 years and over

5,570 5,417 5,505 8.1 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.9 8.0

20 to 24 years

932 995 977 13.0 14.4 14.2 13.5 13.7 13.6

25 years and over

4,677 4,483 4,562 7.6 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.3 7.4

25 to 54 years

3,728 3,612 3,606 7.8 7.5 7.7 7.5 7.7 7.6

25 to 34 years

1,440 1,385 1,332 9.4 8.7 9.2 9.0 9.1 8.8

35 to 44 years

1,132 1,135 1,176 7.4 7.1 7.4 7.1 7.5 7.8

45 to 54 years

1,155 1,093 1,099 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.5

55 years and over(1)

850 782 876 5.9 6.3 5.7 5.8 5.4 6.0

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

3,112 2,756 2,696 6.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.9

Married women, spouse present

2,276 2,056 2,072 6.2 5.6 5.4 5.7 5.7 5.8

Women who maintain families(1)

1,181 1,193 1,303 11.6 12.7 13.0 12.3 11.7 12.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

13,039 11,938 12,073 10.4 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.7

Part-time workers(3)

1,898 1,840 1,833 6.6 6.2 6.5 6.3 6.4 6.3

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment [Numbers in thousands] Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,812 7,958 7,885 9,194 8,519 8,334 8,209 8,144 8,274

On temporary layoff

1,192 1,186 1,004 1,448 1,249 1,270 1,197 1,251 1,214

Not on temporary layoff

7,620 6,772 6,881 7,746 7,270 7,064 7,013 6,894 7,060

Permanent job losers

6,360 5,449 5,566 6,408 5,879 5,671 5,625 5,480 5,653

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,261 1,323 1,315 1,339 1,391 1,393 1,388 1,414 1,407

Job leavers

922 911 869 966 910 898 896 942 908

Reentrants

3,455 3,217 3,477 3,430 3,357 3,352 3,262 3,375 3,433

New entrants

1,180 1,151 1,190 1,192 1,351 1,337 1,360 1,346 1,231

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

61.3 60.1 58.8 62.2 60.3 59.9 59.8 59.0 59.8

On temporary layoff

8.3 9.0 7.5 9.8 8.8 9.1 8.7 9.1 8.8

Not on temporary layoff

53.0 51.2 51.3 52.4 51.4 50.7 51.1 49.9 51.0

Job leavers

6.4 6.9 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.8 6.6

Reentrants

24.0 24.3 25.9 23.2 23.7 24.1 23.8 24.4 24.8

New entrants

8.2 8.7 8.9 8.1 9.6 9.6 9.9 9.8 8.9

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.7 5.2 5.1 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.4

Job leavers

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

2.2 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2

New entrants

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment [Numbers in thousands] Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,743 2,325 2,664 2,763 2,678 2,390 2,449 2,691 2,664

5 to 14 weeks

2,526 2,478 2,356 3,060 3,016 3,094 2,914 2,907 2,892

15 weeks and over

9,100 8,434 8,401 8,884 8,495 8,172 8,078 7,845 8,184

15 to 26 weeks

2,459 2,333 2,235 2,174 2,285 2,179 1,957 2,006 1,984

27 weeks and over

6,641 6,101 6,166 6,710 6,210 5,993 6,122 5,839 6,200

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

35.1 41.4 41.2 34.3 36.9 37.1 39.0 38.3 39.7

Median duration, in weeks

24.2 24.3 23.8 22.8 21.8 21.2 21.7 20.7 22.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

19.1 17.6 19.8 18.8 18.9 17.5 18.2 20.0 19.4

5 to 14 weeks

17.6 18.7 17.6 20.8 21.3 22.7 21.7 21.6 21.0

15 weeks and over

63.3 63.7 62.6 60.4 59.9 59.8 60.1 58.4 59.6

15 to 26 weeks

17.1 17.6 16.7 14.8 16.1 16.0 14.6 14.9 14.4

27 weeks and over

46.2 46.1 45.9 45.6 43.8 43.9 45.5 43.4 45.1

Footnotes
(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

Total, 16 years and over(1)

139,497 140,028 14,369 13,421 9.3 8.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

51,839 52,778 2,450 2,419 4.5 4.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,856 21,355 1,074 1,094 4.9 4.9

Professional and related occupations

30,982 31,423 1,376 1,325 4.3 4.0

Service occupations

24,883 24,959 2,719 2,607 9.9 9.5

Sales and office occupations

33,433 32,804 3,209 3,172 8.8 8.8

Sales and related occupations

15,219 15,376 1,614 1,596 9.6 9.4

Office and administrative support occupations

18,214 17,428 1,595 1,576 8.1 8.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,362 12,942 2,429 1,900 15.4 12.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,029 1,033 157 117 13.3 10.2

Construction and extraction occupations

7,305 7,071 1,729 1,375 19.1 16.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,028 4,838 543 408 9.7 7.8

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,980 16,546 2,359 2,100 12.9 11.3

Production occupations

7,938 8,113 1,193 1,094 13.1 11.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,043 8,433 1,165 1,006 12.7 10.7

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands) Unemployment
rates May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

Total, 16 years and over(1)

14,369 13,421 9.3 8.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,655 10,628 9.9 8.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

46 32 6.2 3.8

Construction

1,755 1,367 20.1 16.3

Manufacturing

1,584 1,453 10.3 9.6

Durable goods

1,028 920 10.7 9.6

Nondurable goods

556 533 9.7 9.6

Wholesale and retail trade

1,998 1,845 9.8 9.0

Transportation and utilities

461 483 7.8 8.0

Information

319 227 9.8 7.3

Financial activities

618 612 6.8 6.8

Professional and business services

1,624 1,429 11.5 9.8

Education and health services

1,150 1,242 5.4 5.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,601 1,402 12.4 10.6

Other services

498 536 8.1 8.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

163 131 10.8 8.7

Government workers

771 836 3.4 3.9

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

600 636 5.6 6.1

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization [Percent] Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Apr.
2011 May
2011 May
2010 Jan.
2011 Feb.
2011 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011 May
2011

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.9 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.3

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.7 5.2 5.1 6.0 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

9.3 8.7 8.7 9.6 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0 9.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

10.0 9.2 9.2 10.3 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.5 9.5

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.6 10.1 10.0 10.9 10.7 10.5 10.3 10.4 10.3

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

16.1 15.5 15.4 16.5 16.1 15.9 15.7 15.9 15.8

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted [Numbers in thousands] Category Total Men Women May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011 May
2010 May
2011

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

83,633 85,864 32,973 34,200 50,661 51,664

Persons who currently want a job

6,381 6,821 3,078 3,337 3,303 3,484

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,223 2,206 1,177 1,158 1,046 1,047

Discouraged workers(2)

1,083 822 644 469 438 353

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,140 1,384 533 689 608 695

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,261 7,084 3,559 3,491 3,702 3,593

Percent of total employed

5.2 5.1 4.8 4.7 5.6 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,826 3,731 2,134 1,987 1,692 1,744

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,903 1,883 591 670 1,312 1,214

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

309 295 216 185 94 111

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,177 1,130 592 629 584 501

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands] Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) Change from:
Apr.2011 - May2011(p)

Total nonfarm

130,801 129,899 131,071 131,753 130,173 130,757 130,989 131,043 54

Total private

107,405 107,332 108,480 109,203 107,193 108,582 108,833 108,916 83

Goods-producing

17,755 17,507 17,771 18,018 17,763 17,956 17,994 17,997 3

Mining and logging

695 744 757 773 698 759 768 774 6

Logging

49.1 47.3 44.2 45.7 50.8 49.8 47.8 47.3 -0.5

Mining

646.2 696.4 712.6 727.0 647.3 708.9 719.8 726.5 6.7

Oil and gas extraction

158.6 166.0 167.3 169.7 159.0 167.2 168.7 169.7 1.0

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

204.0 199.5 207.7 215.2 202.4 208.1 210.9 212.4 1.5

Coal mining

80.1 83.8 84.9 85.3 80.6 83.9 85.3 85.3 0.0

Support activities for mining

283.6 330.9 337.6 342.1 285.9 333.6 340.2 344.4 4.2

Construction

5,564 5,184 5,385 5,576 5,529 5,522 5,527 5,529 2

Construction of buildings

1,238.6 1,168.4 1,185.7 1,212.1 1,243.3 1,224.2 1,220.0 1,214.7 -5.3

Residential building

576.6 536.0 543.8 556.9 578.6 565.1 563.1 557.2 -5.9

Nonresidential building

662.0 632.4 641.9 655.2 664.7 659.1 656.9 657.5 0.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

842.2 756.5 825.4 877.8 820.3 839.3 851.6 854.7 3.1

Specialty trade contractors

3,483.1 3,258.7 3,373.4 3,486.3 3,465.6 3,458.0 3,455.8 3,460.0 4.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,487.7 1,358.6 1,415.4 1,484.7 1,475.9 1,457.3 1,455.3 1,469.4 14.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

1,995.4 1,900.1 1,958.0 2,001.6 1,989.7 2,000.7 2,000.5 1,990.6 -9.9

Manufacturing

11,496 11,579 11,629 11,669 11,536 11,675 11,699 11,694 -5

Durable goods

7,048 7,187 7,224 7,250 7,065 7,232 7,250 7,258 8

Wood products

346.0 333.6 336.9 338.6 346.2 342.7 340.2 338.0 -2.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

377.0 358.4 370.1 375.7 374.4 372.1 371.4 372.5 1.1

Primary metals

359.1 375.2 379.0 382.9 361.0 376.4 380.9 384.0 3.1

Fabricated metal products

1,269.8 1,331.1 1,335.5 1,344.3 1,279.7 1,339.0 1,344.7 1,351.2 6.5

Machinery

986.4 1,027.0 1,032.0 1,037.6 992.0 1,030.8 1,036.1 1,041.6 5.5

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,093.8 1,118.3 1,120.9 1,120.9 1,096.9 1,119.6 1,123.1 1,122.7 -0.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.9 169.9 170.0 169.6 159.9 169.5 170.0 169.4 -0.6

Communication equipment

116.9 117.4 119.2 118.2 117.3 118.3 119.6 118.8 -0.8

Semiconductors and electronic components

366.9 382.4 382.4 383.5 368.9 382.3 383.2 384.6 1.4

Electronic instruments

405.2 403.3 403.2 402.8 405.5 404.1 404.1 403.2 -0.9

Electrical equipment and appliances

358.2 365.7 366.9 367.8 359.4 368.1 368.8 368.8 0.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,332.7 1,357.9 1,360.7 1,354.2 1,329.3 1,357.1 1,360.1 1,351.3 -8.8

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

679.2 696.8 699.4 696.7 676.0 695.0 697.9 694.5 -3.4

Furniture and related products

360.2 347.4 348.7 354.2 358.8 351.1 350.3 352.5 2.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

564.7 572.4 573.0 573.5 567.1 575.0 574.2 574.9 0.7

Nondurable goods

4,448 4,392 4,405 4,419 4,471 4,443 4,449 4,436 -13

Food manufacturing

1,430.9 1,419.9 1,424.7 1,429.3 1,451.4 1,449.7 1,456.0 1,449.0 -7.0

Beverages and tobacco products

181.9 173.7 176.2 181.3 182.9 179.8 180.6 181.9 1.3

Textile mills

120.0 121.0 121.8 122.7 119.5 121.4 121.9 122.0 0.1

Textile product mills

119.7 115.8 115.5 116.2 120.0 116.4 116.2 115.9 -0.3

Apparel

157.2 154.9 156.6 157.5 157.4 156.2 157.1 157.4 0.3

Leather and allied products

27.3 29.3 29.2 28.8 27.3 29.2 29.0 28.7 -0.3

Paper and paper products

396.7 395.0 396.4 395.1 397.7 397.5 397.9 395.4 -2.5

Printing and related support activities

489.8 472.1 470.1 468.2 490.3 473.5 472.4 468.1 -4.3

Petroleum and coal products

115.0 109.0 111.7 113.2 114.1 112.7 112.9 112.3 -0.6

Chemicals

785.2 773.9 775.2 776.3 785.9 776.1 777.3 776.5 -0.8

Plastics and rubber products

624.7 627.0 628.0 630.3 624.5 630.6 628.1 628.9 0.8

Private service-providing

89,650 89,825 90,709 91,185 89,430 90,626 90,839 90,919 80

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,524 24,505 24,678 24,822 24,584 24,791 24,869 24,872 3

Wholesale trade

5,447.8 5,492.0 5,515.6 5,538.1 5,444.6 5,522.6 5,527.9 5,531.2 3.3

Durable goods

2,711.4 2,750.3 2,756.3 2,769.8 2,714.8 2,764.0 2,766.7 2,771.5 4.8

Nondurable goods

1,934.2 1,931.9 1,945.7 1,953.1 1,928.0 1,945.7 1,946.5 1,945.1 -1.4

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

802.2 809.8 813.6 815.2 801.8 812.9 814.7 814.6 -0.1

Retail trade

14,359.9 14,259.5 14,389.5 14,474.1 14,421.0 14,472.2 14,536.2 14,527.7 -8.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,630.4 1,643.7 1,665.1 1,675.4 1,624.4 1,659.9 1,667.3 1,670.0 2.7

Automobile dealers

1,001.7 1,023.8 1,032.6 1,039.8 1,001.6 1,030.1 1,035.3 1,040.4 5.1

Furniture and home furnishings stores

430.0 428.5 428.4 428.0 436.7 435.1 435.1 435.1 0.0

Electronics and appliance stores

485.1 494.0 495.7 491.5 494.2 496.3 501.4 501.0 -0.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,201.1 1,113.5 1,170.5 1,189.5 1,139.1 1,124.1 1,131.7 1,123.4 -8.3

Food and beverage stores

2,808.5 2,790.4 2,807.6 2,825.6 2,811.2 2,819.9 2,832.2 2,825.9 -6.3

Health and personal care stores

979.3 962.8 966.1 969.7 980.7 969.7 971.9 970.9 -1.0

Gasoline stations

819.7 803.5 810.5 821.0 817.8 814.5 816.2 818.4 2.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,332.4 1,372.2 1,383.1 1,379.7 1,372.1 1,418.5 1,422.4 1,422.9 0.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

582.3 582.4 577.9 579.3 600.0 598.9 597.3 596.7 -0.6

General merchandise stores(1)

2,922.1 2,918.1 2,930.6 2,942.8 2,965.1 2,958.0 2,984.9 2,984.8 -0.1

Department stores

1,447.8 1,454.9 1,454.2 1,459.7 1,487.2 1,488.4 1,498.0 1,497.7 -0.3

Miscellaneous store retailers

762.6 745.8 751.8 765.0 761.5 762.8 761.7 761.9 0.2

Nonstore retailers

406.4 404.6 402.2 406.6 418.2 414.5 414.1 416.7 2.6

Transportation and warehousing

4,162.7 4,204.3 4,223.6 4,256.7 4,165.3 4,246.2 4,253.2 4,261.2 8.0

Air transportation

463.6 472.2 471.8 473.4 463.4 472.6 470.8 473.1 2.3

Rail transportation

212.3 220.8 222.1 222.4 212.2 221.5 221.8 222.2 0.4

Water transportation

62.8 62.4 62.7 64.4 62.8 64.6 64.2 64.5 0.3

Truck transportation

1,234.9 1,244.5 1,256.6 1,268.1 1,241.2 1,270.7 1,274.0 1,274.1 0.1

Transit and ground passenger transportation

440.8 455.4 461.1 465.5 424.5 444.8 448.5 449.8 1.3

Pipeline transportation

41.7 42.9 43.2 43.1 41.9 43.2 43.2 43.2 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

29.5 21.8 23.6 30.5 27.7 28.0 26.8 28.3 1.5

Support activities for transportation

538.8 547.4 553.2 554.6 541.4 552.3 555.7 556.1 0.4

Couriers and messengers

513.8 514.2 508.0 511.6 520.4 521.6 520.9 521.8 0.9

Warehousing and storage

624.5 622.7 621.3 623.1 629.8 626.9 627.3 628.1 0.8

Utilities

553.5 548.7 549.6 552.9 553.4 550.1 551.6 552.2 0.6

Information

2,718 2,679 2,681 2,684 2,715 2,683 2,682 2,681 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

759.1 754.5 755.4 752.8 761.9 756.1 756.8 755.6 -1.2

Motion picture and sound recording industries

384.4 366.2 367.9 372.4 375.7 367.5 364.5 364.8 0.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

291.8 295.5 294.1 293.7 293.6 296.1 295.8 295.5 -0.3

Telecommunications

897.9 872.8 866.9 864.4 901.0 872.4 871.0 867.6 -3.4

Data processing, hosting and related services

244.3 240.7 242.6 242.8 242.3 240.1 239.8 240.5 0.7

Other information services

140.3 149.2 153.6 157.4 140.5 150.7 153.9 156.6 2.7

Financial activities

7,625 7,572 7,580 7,601 7,640 7,611 7,609 7,612 3

Finance and insurance

5,682.7 5,663.5 5,656.9 5,657.1 5,694.4 5,668.5 5,665.5 5,667.1 1.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.7 21.1 21.0 21.2 20.7 21.1 21.0 21.2 0.2

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,535.3 2,534.6 2,533.3 2,527.0 2,542.3 2,536.8 2,535.9 2,533.2 -2.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,725.7 1,742.0 1,746.3 1,747.7 1,731.2 1,746.3 1,749.0 1,750.9 1.9

Commercial banking

1,301.7 1,314.9 1,318.4 1,318.0 1,305.2 1,317.6 1,320.4 1,321.5 1.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

798.5 807.7 806.0 805.8 801.5 807.4 807.9 808.2 0.3

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,241.4 2,213.3 2,210.0 2,215.9 2,242.6 2,215.9 2,213.7 2,216.9 3.2

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.8 86.8 86.6 87.2 87.3 87.3 87.0 87.6 0.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,942.7 1,908.0 1,923.2 1,943.8 1,945.9 1,942.8 1,943.5 1,944.7 1.2

Real estate

1,396.8 1,374.5 1,388.1 1,401.8 1,400.5 1,396.2 1,400.7 1,403.7 3.0

Rental and leasing services

520.8 507.9 509.5 516.3 520.2 520.9 517.1 515.2 -1.9

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

25.1 25.6 25.6 25.7 25.2 25.7 25.7 25.8 0.1

Professional and business services

16,618 16,869 17,111 17,152 16,640 17,066 17,116 17,160 44

Professional and technical services(1)

7,325.8 7,614.3 7,651.2 7,545.2 7,407.0 7,549.6 7,575.9 7,616.2 40.3

Legal services

1,109.5 1,108.0 1,106.7 1,106.6 1,113.1 1,112.1 1,111.4 1,110.4 -1.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

824.6 1,019.7 1,012.0 871.7 884.8 904.3 908.5 926.3 17.8

Architectural and engineering services

1,273.1 1,272.9 1,286.7 1,295.9 1,277.0 1,291.3 1,295.6 1,298.6 3.0

Computer systems design and related services

1,429.4 1,477.6 1,488.9 1,494.9 1,434.8 1,485.7 1,491.5 1,499.7 8.2

Management and technical consulting services

977.4 1,013.6 1,026.6 1,034.2 982.7 1,022.7 1,032.9 1,038.1 5.2

Management of companies and enterprises

1,856.7 1,869.3 1,868.3 1,880.0 1,861.3 1,875.8 1,877.5 1,882.4 4.9

Administrative and waste services

7,435.4 7,385.5 7,591.6 7,726.9 7,371.2 7,641.0 7,662.2 7,661.6 -0.6

Administrative and support services(1)

7,078.6 7,032.3 7,233.2 7,363.2 7,014.5 7,279.4 7,299.8 7,298.1 -1.7

Employment services(1)

2,697.9 2,802.0 2,854.9 2,908.7 2,696.9 2,910.3 2,913.3 2,911.1 -2.2

Temporary help services

2,058.7 2,157.8 2,195.8 2,244.0 2,057.5 2,247.6 2,246.0 2,244.8 -1.2

Business support services

797.0 806.1 801.0 793.7 804.1 802.3 803.5 801.6 -1.9

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,811.0 1,633.7 1,769.0 1,839.7 1,740.0 1,763.3 1,768.5 1,766.6 -1.9

Waste management and remediation services

356.8 353.2 358.4 363.7 356.7 361.6 362.4 363.5 1.1

Education and health services

19,569 19,999 20,086 20,016 19,508 19,865 19,919 19,953 34

Educational services

3,182.8 3,350.7 3,377.6 3,268.4 3,138.2 3,203.1 3,215.7 3,222.3 6.6

Health care and social assistance

16,386.6 16,648.4 16,708.2 16,747.7 16,369.7 16,662.1 16,703.1 16,730.3 27.2

Health care(3)

13,737.5 13,964.6 14,010.3 14,030.6 13,754.1 13,992.7 14,029.4 14,046.8 17.4

Ambulatory health care services(1)

5,953.9 6,075.7 6,106.0 6,116.5 5,954.8 6,088.5 6,108.4 6,118.5 10.1

Offices of physicians

2,307.2 2,339.3 2,345.4 2,348.2 2,311.6 2,343.4 2,350.3 2,352.5 2.2

Outpatient care centers

597.0 614.5 617.9 620.7 597.5 615.6 617.8 621.1 3.3

Home health care services

1,076.6 1,111.1 1,118.5 1,116.1 1,074.2 1,112.8 1,115.8 1,115.4 -0.4

Hospitals

4,665.8 4,720.5 4,729.9 4,733.3 4,678.5 4,728.6 4,740.1 4,744.2 4.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,117.8 3,168.4 3,174.4 3,180.8 3,120.8 3,175.6 3,180.9 3,184.1 3.2

Nursing care facilities

1,656.4 1,676.4 1,677.2 1,678.7 1,657.7 1,680.3 1,680.7 1,680.3 -0.4

Social assistance(1)

2,649.1 2,683.8 2,697.9 2,717.1 2,615.6 2,669.4 2,673.7 2,683.5 9.8

Child day care services

875.4 878.9 883.0 887.4 852.6 860.5 861.5 863.6 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

13,228 12,788 13,133 13,444 12,995 13,171 13,203 13,197 -6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,981.1 1,748.5 1,865.1 1,973.1 1,899.8 1,904.7 1,904.5 1,890.8 -13.7

Performing arts and spectator sports

432.8 390.5 416.4 418.7 411.1 415.6 409.9 397.6 -12.3

Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks

132.6 121.5 129.8 135.0 127.0 129.7 131.0 129.3 -1.7

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,415.7 1,236.5 1,318.9 1,419.4 1,361.7 1,359.4 1,363.6 1,363.9 0.3

Accommodation and food services

11,246.5 11,039.3 11,268.0 11,471.2 11,095.3 11,266.3 11,298.4 11,305.7 7.3

Accommodation

1,753.2 1,719.8 1,745.9 1,780.1 1,758.3 1,783.4 1,787.4 1,781.1 -6.3

Food services and drinking places

9,493.3 9,319.5 9,522.1 9,691.1 9,337.0 9,482.9 9,511.0 9,524.6 13.6

Other services

5,368 5,413 5,440 5,466 5,348 5,439 5,441 5,444 3

Repair and maintenance

1,147.8 1,149.7 1,155.5 1,161.9 1,139.0 1,152.2 1,150.2 1,151.9 1.7

Personal and laundry services

1,279.4 1,272.0 1,283.2 1,296.5 1,264.4 1,278.5 1,279.0 1,280.7 1.7

Membership associations and organizations

2,941.1 2,990.9 3,000.9 3,007.1 2,944.2 3,008.7 3,012.2 3,011.5 -0.7

Government

23,396 22,567 22,591 22,550 22,980 22,175 22,156 22,127 -29

Federal

3,410.0 2,834.0 2,846.0 2,847.0 3,413.0 2,854.0 2,850.0 2,851.0 1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,754.6 2,204.4 2,211.3 2,220.9 2,753.3 2,220.3 2,217.8 2,220.3 2.5

U.S. Postal Service

655.2 629.8 634.9 626.5 659.7 633.7 632.4 630.2 -2.2

State government

5,176.0 5,253.0 5,253.0 5,150.0 5,135.0 5,119.0 5,113.0 5,111.0 -2.0

State government education

2,403.7 2,540.5 2,540.7 2,437.0 2,367.1 2,397.2 2,397.0 2,400.8 3.8

State government, excluding education

2,771.9 2,712.7 2,712.7 2,713.2 2,768.1 2,721.4 2,716.1 2,710.4 -5.7

Local government

14,810.0 14,480.0 14,492.0 14,553.0 14,432.0 14,202.0 14,193.0 14,165.0 -28.0

Local government education

8,435.4 8,290.6 8,289.1 8,293.2 8,052.5 7,918.0 7,919.2 7,901.7 -17.5

Local government, excluding education

6,374.5 6,189.0 6,202.4 6,259.5 6,379.7 6,284.4 6,273.4 6,263.2 -10.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted Industry May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.2 34.3 34.4 34.4

Goods-producing

39.8 39.9 39.9 40.1

Mining and logging

44.1 44.2 43.8 44.4

Construction

37.8 37.9 38.2 38.5

Manufacturing

40.5 40.5 40.4 40.6

Durable goods

40.8 40.9 40.8 40.9

Nondurable goods

40.1 39.8 39.8 40.0

Private service-providing

33.1 33.2 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.3 34.5 34.6 34.6

Wholesale trade

38.1 38.5 38.6 38.7

Retail trade

31.4 31.4 31.6 31.5

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 38.8 38.8 38.9

Utilities

41.6 41.9 42.0 42.4

Information

36.6 36.5 36.6 36.7

Financial activities

37.0 36.9 37.1 36.9

Professional and business services

35.4 35.6 35.7 35.7

Education and health services

32.8 32.7 32.8 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

25.7 25.9 26.0 26.0

Other services

31.8 31.7 31.8 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2

Durable goods

3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

Total private

$22.57 $22.89 $22.92 $22.98 $771.89 $785.13 $788.45 $790.51

Goods-producing

24.05 24.29 24.34 24.40 957.19 969.17 971.17 978.44

Mining and logging

27.53 28.10 28.34 28.35 1,214.07 1,242.02 1,241.29 1,258.74

Construction

25.15 25.37 25.38 25.37 950.67 961.52 969.52 976.75

Manufacturing

23.33 23.55 23.59 23.68 944.87 953.78 953.04 961.41

Durable goods

24.81 25.05 25.09 25.20 1,012.25 1,024.55 1,023.67 1,030.68

Nondurable goods

20.94 21.03 21.09 21.13 839.69 836.99 839.38 845.20

Private service-providing

22.22 22.56 22.59 22.64 735.48 748.99 752.25 753.91

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.66 19.86 19.93 19.96 674.34 685.17 689.58 690.62

Wholesale trade

26.13 26.10 26.24 26.23 995.55 1,004.85 1,012.86 1,015.10

Retail trade

15.58 15.68 15.73 15.72 489.21 492.35 497.07 495.18

Transportation and warehousing

20.91 21.43 21.53 21.60 805.04 831.48 835.36 840.24

Utilities

32.85 33.41 33.72 33.91 1,366.56 1,399.88 1,416.24 1,437.78

Information

30.41 31.78 31.44 31.47 1,113.01 1,159.97 1,150.70 1,154.95

Financial activities

27.16 27.63 27.65 27.62 1,004.92 1,019.55 1,025.82 1,019.18

Professional and business services

27.17 27.54 27.58 27.66 961.82 980.42 984.61 987.46

Education and health services

22.89 23.38 23.41 23.50 750.79 764.53 767.85 773.15

Leisure and hospitality

13.08 13.19 13.21 13.24 336.16 341.62 343.46 344.24

Other services

20.14 20.37 20.36 20.42 640.45 645.73 647.45 651.40

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted [2007=100] Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) Percent change from:
Apr.
2011 - May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) Percent change from:
Apr.
2011 - May
2011(p)

Total private

91.9 93.3 93.8 93.9 0.1 98.9 101.9 102.5 102.9 0.4

Goods-producing

80.5 81.6 81.8 82.2 0.5 87.5 89.6 90.0 90.7 0.8

Mining and logging

96.7 105.4 105.7 108.0 2.2 106.9 118.9 120.3 122.9 2.2

Construction

72.0 72.1 72.8 73.4 0.8 78.7 79.5 80.2 80.9 0.9

Manufacturing

84.1 85.1 85.0 85.4 0.5 91.2 93.2 93.3 94.1 0.9

Durable goods

81.2 83.3 83.3 83.6 0.4 89.4 92.6 92.8 93.5 0.8

Nondurable goods

89.5 88.3 88.4 88.6 0.2 95.1 94.2 94.6 95.0 0.4

Private service-providing

95.1 96.6 97.2 97.2 0.0 102.3 105.6 106.3 106.7 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

91.6 93.0 93.5 93.5 0.0 97.0 99.4 100.3 100.5 0.2

Wholesale trade

90.5 92.8 93.1 93.4 0.3 98.7 101.0 102.0 102.2 0.2

Retail trade

92.0 92.3 93.3 92.9 -0.4 94.7 95.7 97.0 96.6 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

91.8 94.3 94.4 94.9 0.5 97.4 102.5 103.2 104.0 0.8

Utilities

99.6 99.7 100.2 101.3 1.1 108.1 110.1 111.6 113.5 1.7

Information

90.8 89.4 89.6 89.9 0.3 98.3 101.2 100.4 100.7 0.3

Financial activities

93.1 92.5 93.0 92.6 -0.4 98.8 99.8 100.4 99.8 -0.6

Professional and business services

92.6 95.6 96.1 96.4 0.3 102.0 106.6 107.4 108.0 0.6

Education and health services

104.1 105.7 106.3 106.8 0.5 111.7 115.8 116.6 117.6 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

95.3 97.3 97.9 97.9 0.0 100.6 103.6 104.4 104.6 0.2

Other services

94.2 95.5 95.9 96.2 0.3 107.7 110.4 110.8 111.5 0.6

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

Total nonfarm

64,885 64,793 64,918 64,917 49.8 49.6 49.6 49.5

Total private

51,832 52,185 52,316 52,318 48.4 48.1 48.1 48.0

Goods-producing

4,105 4,071 4,067 4,056 23.1 22.7 22.6 22.5

Mining and logging

97 103 104 104 13.9 13.6 13.5 13.4

Construction

727 711 711 706 13.1 12.9 12.9 12.8

Manufacturing

3,281 3,257 3,252 3,246 28.4 27.9 27.8 27.8

Durable goods

1,735 1,726 1,721 1,718 24.6 23.9 23.7 23.7

Nondurable goods

1,546 1,531 1,531 1,528 34.6 34.5 34.4 34.4

Private service-providing

47,727 48,114 48,249 48,262 53.4 53.1 53.1 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,005 9,992 10,022 10,010 40.7 40.3 40.3 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,637.7 1,658.7 1,661.5 1,659.5 30.1 30.0 30.1 30.0

Retail trade

7,229.6 7,195.4 7,220.4 7,208.4 50.1 49.7 49.7 49.6

Transportation and warehousing

998.8 1,003.4 1,005.1 1,007.1 24.0 23.6 23.6 23.6

Utilities

139.3 134.7 134.8 135.2 25.2 24.5 24.4 24.5

Information

1,108 1,093 1,091 1,089 40.8 40.7 40.7 40.6

Financial activities

4,499 4,444 4,446 4,450 58.9 58.4 58.4 58.5

Professional and business services

7,416 7,583 7,617 7,636 44.6 44.4 44.5 44.5

Education and health services

15,056 15,260 15,302 15,314 77.2 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

6,813 6,878 6,901 6,891 52.4 52.2 52.3 52.2

Other services

2,830 2,864 2,870 2,872 52.9 52.7 52.7 52.8

Government

13,053 12,608 12,602 12,599 56.8 56.9 56.9 56.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1) [In thousands] Industry May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

Total private

88,354 89,483 89,694 89,759

Goods-producing

12,777 12,941 12,971 12,976

Mining and logging

520 570 579 583

Construction

4,166 4,183 4,178 4,175

Manufacturing

8,091 8,188 8,214 8,218

Durable goods

4,833 4,953 4,969 4,983

Nondurable goods

3,258 3,235 3,245 3,235

Private service-providing

75,577 76,542 76,723 76,783

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,844 20,969 21,047 21,032

Wholesale trade

4,379.3 4,421.8 4,426.1 4,430.9

Retail trade

12,407.6 12,457.0 12,516.5 12,494.4

Transportation and warehousing

3,611.6 3,651.1 3,663.4 3,665.9

Utilities

445.3 438.8 440.6 441.2

Information

2,175 2,154 2,155 2,154

Financial activities

5,905 5,830 5,826 5,819

Professional and business services

13,620 14,027 14,058 14,103

Education and health services

17,091 17,405 17,444 17,472

Leisure and hospitality

11,471 11,603 11,639 11,650

Other services

4,471 4,554 4,554 4,553

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1) Industry May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.4 33.6 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

40.5 40.7 40.8 40.9

Mining and logging

45.3 46.0 46.7 47.0

Construction

38.1 38.6 38.8 39.1

Manufacturing

41.5 41.4 41.4 41.4

Durable goods

41.6 41.9 41.7 41.8

Nondurable goods

41.2 40.7 40.9 40.9

Private service-providing

32.2 32.4 32.4 32.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.3 33.6 33.7 33.5

Wholesale trade

38.0 38.5 38.5 38.5

Retail trade

30.2 30.3 30.5 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

36.9 38.0 37.9 37.8

Utilities

42.2 42.7 42.8 42.8

Information

36.5 36.3 36.4 36.3

Financial activities

36.3 36.2 36.2 36.2

Professional and business services

35.1 35.1 35.3 35.1

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 24.9 24.8

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.0 4.2 4.1 4.1

Durable goods

3.9 4.4 4.2 4.1

Nondurable goods

4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1) Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p)

Total private

$19.03 $19.32 $19.37 $19.43 $635.60 $649.15 $650.83 $652.85

Goods-producing

20.21 20.59 20.59 20.63 818.51 838.01 840.07 843.77

Mining and logging

23.76 24.33 23.88 24.20 1,076.33 1,119.18 1,115.20 1,137.40

Construction

23.10 23.49 23.57 23.58 880.11 906.71 914.52 921.98

Manufacturing

18.59 18.91 18.91 18.93 771.49 782.87 782.87 783.70

Durable goods

19.78 20.12 20.14 20.16 822.85 843.03 839.84 842.69

Nondurable goods

16.81 17.01 16.99 17.00 692.57 692.31 694.89 695.30

Private service-providing

18.78 19.05 19.12 19.18 604.72 617.22 619.49 619.51

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.81 17.07 17.10 17.15 559.77 573.55 576.27 574.53

Wholesale trade

21.47 21.84 21.91 22.00 815.86 840.84 843.54 847.00

Retail trade

13.20 13.41 13.43 13.40 398.64 406.32 409.62 404.68

Transportation and warehousing

19.28 19.31 19.39 19.51 711.43 733.78 734.88 737.48

Utilities

30.15 30.74 31.16 31.10 1,272.33 1,312.60 1,333.65 1,331.08

Information

25.81 26.51 26.69 26.74 942.07 962.31 971.52 970.66

Financial activities

21.43 21.71 21.81 21.76 777.91 785.90 789.52 787.71

Professional and business services

22.76 23.00 23.11 23.19 798.88 807.30 815.78 813.97

Education and health services

20.03 20.46 20.50 20.58 644.97 658.81 660.10 664.73

Leisure and hospitality

11.35 11.40 11.43 11.49 281.48 283.86 284.61 284.95

Other services

17.06 17.14 17.21 17.24 523.74 527.91 528.35 529.27

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1) [2002=100] Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) Percent change from:
Apr.
2011 - May
2011(p) May
2010 Mar.
2011 Apr.
2011(p) May
2011(p) Percent change from:
Apr.
2011 - May
2011(p)

Total private

98.6 100.5 100.7 100.8 0.1 125.4 129.7 130.3 130.8 0.4

Goods-producing

79.1 80.5 80.9 81.1 0.2 97.9 101.5 102.0 102.5 0.5

Mining and logging

125.2 139.3 143.7 145.6 1.3 173.0 197.2 199.6 204.9 2.7

Construction

79.5 80.8 81.2 81.7 0.6 99.1 102.5 103.3 104.1 0.8

Manufacturing

77.1 77.8 78.0 78.1 0.1 93.7 96.2 96.5 96.7 0.2

Durable goods

75.5 78.0 77.8 78.2 0.5 93.3 97.9 97.9 98.5 0.6

Nondurable goods

79.1 77.6 78.2 78.0 -0.3 93.9 93.3 93.9 93.7 -0.2

Private service-providing

104.1 106.0 106.3 106.0 -0.3 134.0 138.5 139.3 139.5 0.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96.8 98.2 98.9 98.2 -0.7 116.0 119.6 120.6 120.2 -0.3

Wholesale trade

98.0 100.3 100.4 100.5 0.1 123.9 129.0 129.5 130.2 0.5

Retail trade

94.8 95.5 96.6 95.5 -1.1 107.3 109.8 111.2 109.7 -1.3

Transportation and warehousing

100.3 104.4 104.5 104.3 -0.2 122.7 127.9 128.6 129.1 0.4

Utilities

96.1 95.8 96.5 96.6 0.1 121.0 123.0 125.5 125.4 -0.1

Information

90.6 89.3 89.6 89.3 -0.3 115.8 117.1 118.3 118.2 -0.1

Financial activities

102.6 101.0 100.9 100.8 -0.1 135.9 135.6 136.1 135.6 -0.4

Professional and business services

107.1 110.3 111.2 110.9 -0.3 145.1 151.0 152.9 153.1 0.1

Education and health services

118.7 120.9 121.2 121.7 0.4 156.3 162.6 163.3 164.7 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

104.3 105.9 106.2 105.9 -0.3 134.4 137.1 137.9 138.2 0.2

Other services

96.3 98.4 98.1 98.1 0.0 119.7 122.9 123.0 123.2 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: June 03, 2011

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