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Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics

The proportion of the population employed in 2010--the employment-population ratio--was
18.6 percent among those with a disability, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported
today. The employment-population ratio for persons without a disability was 63.5 percent.
The ratios in 2010 for both persons with and without a disability were lower than those
recorded in 2009. The unemployment rate of persons with a disability was 14.8 percent
in 2010, higher than the rate for those with no disability, which was 9.4 percent.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current Population
Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households that provides
statistics on employment and unemployment in the United States. The collection of
data on persons with a disability is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of
Disability Employment Policy. For more information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2010 data are:

   --Persons with a disability were over three times as likely as those with no
     disability to be age 65 or over. (See table 1.)

   --For each age group, the employment-population ratio was much lower for persons
     with a disability than for those with no disability. (See table 1.)

   --The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was about the same in 2010
     as in 2009. The rate for persons without a disability increased over the year.
     (See table A.)

   --Nearly one-third of workers with a disability were employed part time, compared
     with about one-fifth of those with no disability. (See table 2.)

   --Persons with a disability were more likely to be self-employed than those with
     no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, reflecting
the increased incidence of disability with age. In 2010, 45 percent of persons with a
disability were age 65 and over, compared with 13 percent of those with no disability.
Women were somewhat more likely to have a disability than men, partly reflecting the
greater life expectancy of women. Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the
prevalence of a disability was higher for blacks and whites than for Asians and
Hispanics. (See table 1.)

Employment

In 2010, the employment-population ratio was 18.6 percent for persons with a disability.
Among those with no disability, the ratio was much higher at 63.5 percent. The lower
ratio among persons with a disability is due, in part, to the fact that a large share
of the population of persons with a disability was age 65 and older, and older workers,
in general, are less likely to be employed. However, among each age group, persons with
a disability were much less likely to be employed than those with no disability. (See
table 1.)

In 2010, employment-population ratios for both persons with and without a disability
were lower than in 2009. For both groups, the decline was largest among those age
16 to 64. (See table A.)

Persons with a disability who had completed higher levels of education were more likely
to be employed in 2010 than those with less education. However, at each level of
education, persons with a disability were much less likely to be employed than were
their counterparts with no disability. (Because many people age 16 to 24 are still
completing their education, data on educational attainment are shown for those age 25
and over.) (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely than those with no disability to work part
time. Among workers with a disability, 32 percent usually worked part time in 2010,
compared with 19 percent of workers without a disability. A slightly larger proportion
of workers with a disability worked part time for economic reasons than those with no
disability (8 and 6 percent, respectively). These individuals were working part time
because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time
job. (See table 2.)

Workers with a disability were slightly more likely than those with no disability to
work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations (15 percent
compared with 12 percent). Those with a disability were less likely to work in
management, professional, and related occupations (31 percent compared with 37 percent).
(See table 3.)

In 2010, 15 percent of workers with a disability were employed in federal, state, and 
local government, the same percentage as those with no disability. Seventy-four percent
of workers with a disability were employed as private wage and salary workers, compared
with 78 percent of those with no disability. A larger proportion of workers with a
disability were self-employed than were those with no disability (11 and 7 percent,
respectively). (See table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 14.8 percent in 2010, well above
the figure of 9.4 percent for those with no disability. (Unemployed persons are those
who did not have a job, were available for work, and were actively looking for a job in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey.) Compared with 2009, the unemployment rate for persons
with a disability was about the same in 2010, while the rate for persons without a
disability increased. (See tables A and 1.)

Among persons with a disability, the jobless rate for men (15.2 percent) was slightly
higher in 2010 than the rate for women (14.3 percent). As is the case among those
without a disability, the unemployment rates in 2010 for those with a disability were
higher among blacks (22.0 percent) and Hispanics (18.4 percent) than among whites (13.6
percent) and Asians (12.0 percent). (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are referred to as not in the labor
force. As was the case in 2009, a large proportion of those with a disability (about 8
in 10) were not in the labor force in 2010, compared with about 3 in 10 of those with no
disability. In part, this reflects the fact that many of those with a disability are
age 65 and over. However, for each age group, persons with a disability were more likely
than those with no disability to be out of the labor force. (See table 1.)

For persons with and without a disability, the vast majority of those not in the labor
force reported that they do not want a job. Among those who do want a job, a subset is
classified as marginally attached to the labor force. These individuals were not in the
labor force, wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in
the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched
for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Among persons not in the labor force,
1 percent of those with a disability were marginally attached to the labor force in 2010,
compared with 4 percent of those with no disability. (Persons marginally attached to the
labor force include discouraged workers.) (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2009 and 2010 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] Characteristic 2009 2010 Total, 16 years
and over 16 to 64
years 65 years
and over Total, 16 years
and over 16 to 64
years 65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,981 14,845 12,136 26,592 14,730 11,862

Civilian labor force

6,050 5,220 830 5,795 4,995 800

Participation rate

22.4 35.2 6.8 21.8 33.9 6.7

Employed

5,174 4,406 768 4,939 4,210 729

Employment-population ratio

19.2 29.7 6.3 18.6 28.6 6.1

Unemployed

876 814 61 857 786 71

Unemployment rate

14.5 15.6 7.4 14.8 15.7 8.9

Not in labor force

20,931 9,625 11,306 20,797 9,735 11,062

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

208,820 182,958 25,862 211,238 184,394 26,844

Civilian labor force

148,092 142,388 5,705 148,094 142,176 5,918

Participation rate

70.9 77.8 22.1 70.1 77.1 22.0

Employed

134,703 129,358 5,345 134,125 128,586 5,539

Employment-population ratio

64.5 70.7 20.7 63.5 69.7 20.6

Unemployed

13,389 13,029 359 13,968 13,590 378

Unemployment rate

9.0 9.2 6.3 9.4 9.6 6.4

Not in labor force

60,728 40,570 20,158 63,144 42,218 20,926

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly survey of about 60,000
households that is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS).

   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment
Policy.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors
from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or
unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors is available online at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by age, sex,
race and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the Census Bureau and
are based on complete population counts obtained in the decennial census. In the
years between decennial censuses, they incorporate the latest information about
population change (births, deaths, and net international migration). As part of its
annual update of population estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to
the total population controls. The estimated effect of the new controls on CPS data
for 2010 (based on a comparison of December 2009 data on the old and new controls)
was to decrease the total employment level by 243,000. The number of employed persons
with a disability was lower by 8,000 and the number with no disability was lower by
235,000; these effects reflect an indirect adjustment related to changes in population
size and composition by age, sex, race and Hispanic ethnicity. The updated controls
had a negligible impact on unemployment rates and other ratios. (The estimates of the
population of persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population
totals of persons with a disability because such data are not currently available.
Without independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary
from one time period to the next.) Additional information is available on the BLS Web
site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. In the
CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response of "yes" to
any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS in the following
format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years and older.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty seeing even when
     wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or
     shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only asked of
household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask the respondent
whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent
replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the
condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are tabulated for persons age 16 and older.
More information on the disability questions and the limitations of the CPS disability
data is available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. Additional
information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which is
generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; or
(d) were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason.

   Unemployed persons are all persons who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work, except for temporary illness, and had made specific efforts
to find employment sometime during the 4 weeks preceding the survey.  Persons who were
waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a percent of the
civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force includes all persons who are not classified as employed or
unemployed. Information is collected on their desire for and availability to take a
job at the time of the CPS interview, job search activity in the prior year, and
reason for not looking in the 4-week period prior to the survey week. This group
includes individuals marginally attached to the labor force, defined as persons
not in the labor force who want and are available for a job and who have looked for
work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held
one within the past 12 months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had
not actively searched for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached
group are discouraged workers--persons who are not currently looking for work because
they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify.
The other persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   At work part time for economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary
part time, refers to individuals who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours
during the reference week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business
conditions, inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for full-time
work.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker for the employed relate to the job held in
the survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at
which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2002
Census occupational and 2007 Census industry classification systems. The class-of-worker
breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: Private and government wage and
salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers
receive wages, salary, commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from
a government unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their
own business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that their
businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2010 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force Total Participation
rate Employed Unemployed Total Percent of
population Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

Men

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

Women

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

26,592 5,795 21.8 4,939 18.6 857 14.8 20,797

Men

12,147 3,142 25.9 2,665 21.9 477 15.2 9,005

Women

14,445 2,653 18.4 2,274 15.7 379 14.3 11,792

Age

16 to 64 years

14,730 4,995 33.9 4,210 28.6 786 15.7 9,735

16 to 19 years

593 134 22.7 87 14.6 48 35.6 458

20 to 24 years

777 350 45.1 265 34.1 86 24.4 427

25 to 34 years

1,534 682 44.5 535 34.9 147 21.5 852

35 to 44 years

2,148 826 38.4 699 32.6 126 15.3 1,322

45 to 54 years

4,217 1,477 35.0 1,267 30.0 210 14.2 2,740

55 to 64 years

5,462 1,526 27.9 1,356 24.8 169 11.1 3,936

65 years and over

11,862 800 6.7 729 6.1 71 8.9 11,062

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

21,787 4,870 22.4 4,206 19.3 664 13.6 16,917

Black or African American

3,340 591 17.7 460 13.8 130 22.0 2,750

Asian

623 113 18.2 100 16.0 14 12.0 509

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

2,572 599 23.3 488 19.0 110 18.4 1,973

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

25,222 5,311 21.1 4,587 18.2 723 13.6 19,912

Less than a high school diploma

6,102 627 10.3 517 8.5 110 17.6 5,474

High school graduates, no college(1)

9,249 1,750 18.9 1,493 16.1 257 14.7 7,499

Some college or associate degree

6,059 1,666 27.5 1,421 23.5 245 14.7 4,393

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

3,813 1,268 33.3 1,157 30.3 111 8.7 2,545

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

211,238 148,094 70.1 134,125 63.5 13,968 9.4 63,144

Men

103,027 78,842 76.5 70,694 68.6 8,148 10.3 24,184

Women

108,211 69,251 64.0 63,431 58.6 5,820 8.4 38,960

Age

16 to 64 years

184,394 142,176 77.1 128,586 69.7 13,590 9.6 42,218

16 to 19 years

16,308 5,771 35.4 4,292 26.3 1,480 25.6 10,537

20 to 24 years

20,270 14,678 72.4 12,435 61.3 2,244 15.3 5,592

25 to 34 years

39,369 32,932 83.6 29,693 75.4 3,239 9.8 6,437

35 to 44 years

37,942 32,540 85.8 29,963 79.0 2,577 7.9 5,402

45 to 54 years

40,080 34,483 86.0 31,924 79.6 2,560 7.4 5,597

55 to 64 years

30,424 21,771 71.6 20,280 66.7 1,491 6.8 8,653

65 years and over

26,844 5,918 22.0 5,539 20.6 378 6.4 20,926

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

170,288 120,214 70.6 109,962 64.6 10,252 8.5 50,074

Black or African American

25,368 17,272 68.1 14,550 57.4 2,722 15.8 8,096

Asian

10,577 7,135 67.5 6,605 62.5 530 7.4 3,442

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

31,141 22,150 71.1 19,418 62.4 2,732 12.3 8,991

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

174,659 127,644 73.1 117,399 67.2 10,245 8.0 47,015

Less than a high school diploma

19,564 11,252 57.5 9,598 49.1 1,655 14.7 8,312

High school graduates, no college(1)

52,788 36,487 69.1 32,800 62.1 3,686 10.1 16,301

Some college or associate degree

46,163 35,175 76.2 32,326 70.0 2,848 8.1 10,988

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

56,144 44,731 79.7 42,675 76.0 2,056 4.6 11,414

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2010 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1) Total Usually
work
full time Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

139,064 111,714 27,350 8,874

16 to 64 years

132,796 108,104 24,692 8,626

65 years and over

6,268 3,611 2,658 249

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

4,939 3,337 1,602 400

16 to 64 years

4,210 2,999 1,211 369

65 years and over

729 338 391 31

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

134,125 108,378 25,748 8,474

16 to 64 years

128,586 105,105 23,481 8,256

65 years and over

5,539 3,273 2,267 218

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2010 annual averages [Percent distribution] Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

4,939 2,665 2,274 134,125 70,694 63,431

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31.4 29.5 33.5 37.4 34.3 40.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

13.6 15.7 11.2 15.1 16.3 13.8

Management occupations

10.2 12.6 7.3 10.8 12.6 8.8

Business and financial operations occupations

3.5 3.1 3.9 4.3 3.7 5.0

Professional and related occupations

17.7 13.9 22.3 22.3 18.0 27.1

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.9 2.5 1.1 2.6 3.6 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.5 2.3 0.5 1.9 3.1 0.5

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.8 0.9 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0

Community and social services occupations

1.9 1.5 2.3 1.7 1.1 2.3

Legal occupations

1.1 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3

Education, training, and library occupations

5.3 2.6 8.4 6.2 3.1 9.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.7 1.4 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

3.6 1.7 5.7 5.7 2.8 8.9

Service occupations

19.4 16.1 23.3 17.7 14.5 21.2

Healthcare support occupations

2.3 0.5 4.5 2.4 0.5 4.5

Protective service occupations

2.0 2.9 0.9 2.4 3.6 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

5.4 4.4 6.5 5.5 4.7 6.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5.4 6.6 4.1 3.8 4.2 3.3

Personal care and service occupations

4.3 1.8 7.3 3.6 1.5 5.9

Sales and office occupations

25.1 16.9 34.8 24.0 16.9 31.9

Sales and related occupations

11.1 9.8 12.7 11.1 10.5 11.7

Office and administrative support occupations

14.0 7.1 22.1 12.9 6.4 20.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9.6 17.0 0.9 9.4 17.0 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.8 1.3 0.3 0.7 1.0 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

5.0 9.0 0.2 5.2 9.5 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.8 6.7 0.4 3.5 6.4 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.5 20.5 7.5 11.5 17.3 5.1

Production occupations

7.4 9.8 4.6 5.7 7.8 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.1 10.7 2.9 5.8 9.4 1.8
Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2010 annual averages [Percent distribution] Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

4,939 2,665 2,274 134,125 70,694 63,431

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

2.8 4.2 1.1 1.5 2.2 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

97.2 95.8 98.9 98.5 97.8 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.5 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.9 0.2

Construction

6.2 10.4 1.2 6.5 11.3 1.2

Manufacturing

10.0 13.5 6.0 10.1 13.8 6.0

Wholesale trade

2.7 3.5 1.7 2.7 3.7 1.7

Retail trade

13.3 12.4 14.4 11.4 10.9 11.9

Transportation and utilities

5.0 7.1 2.6 5.1 7.5 2.5

Information

1.9 2.1 1.7 2.3 2.6 2.0

Financial activities

6.0 5.0 7.2 6.8 5.9 7.8

Professional and business services

10.2 11.5 8.7 11.0 12.2 9.6

Education and health services

21.8 11.3 34.1 23.1 11.0 36.6

Leisure and hospitality

9.0 8.1 10.0 9.0 8.3 9.8

Other services

5.8 5.3 6.2 4.8 4.4 5.3

Public administration

4.8 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.2 4.8

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

89.1 86.8 91.8 93.1 91.8 94.5

Private industries

73.9 73.6 74.2 78.0 79.5 76.3

Government

15.2 13.2 17.6 15.1 12.4 18.2

Federal

3.2 3.7 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.4

State

4.9 3.7 6.3 4.5 3.5 5.7

Local

7.1 5.8 8.7 8.0 6.0 10.1

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

10.7 13.0 8.0 6.8 8.1 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2010 annual averages [Numbers in thousands] Category Total,
16 years and
over 16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

20,797 9,735 4,609 5,126 11,062

Persons who currently want a job

570 429 209 220 141

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

209 178 95 83 31

Discouraged workers(2)

106 85 52 33 21

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

104 93 44 49 10

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

63,144 42,218 15,512 26,705 20,926

Persons who currently want a job

5,489 5,015 2,375 2,640 474

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,278 2,141 1,148 993 137

Discouraged workers(2)

1,067 986 618 368 81

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,211 1,155 530 625 56

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 24, 2011

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